Tuesday, 29 May 2007

Random random random

Holidays are for relaxing. But have to do work. So... must try to enjoy ur work, so can be a win-win situation.

Some stuff by Helen Keller

Q: Who do you think are the most unhappy people?
A: People who have nothing to do.

Q: What brings the greatest satisfaction?

A: Work, accomplishment

Q: What is your idea of happiness?
A: Helpfulness

Q: Do you desire your sight more than anything else in the world?
A: No! No! I would rather walk with a friend in the dark than walk alone in the light.

Wish all those overseas a safe trip!!

Enjoy ur holidays!!


Junjie says lets mug at 6:03 pm

Saturday, 26 May 2007


Although theres still plenty of work to do...

Still... its holidays!! Cheer up everyone!! Don't emo!!!! Emo is bad for health, both mental and physical.

Junjie says lets mug at 12:10 am

Thursday, 24 May 2007

1 more day to end of term.

... and.. thanks to Kai Xian, Kelvin, Chao Tong, Helen, Mark and Bin Sheng for the island creamery treat!!

I feel very sian. There seems to be some kind of void that can't be filled. I seem to find everything I do getting more and more meaningless. It's not stress... just some.. unknown factor..

Sorry for the emo post... Let's just forget it all and concentrate on the upcoming blocks.

Woon Chee, do take care... you seem to fall sick very often... And get well soon!!


Junjie says lets mug at 6:13 pm

Wednesday, 23 May 2007

I haven't blogged in ages!
First off, hi yuan chang, bo wei, wee lic, cao lei! We miss you!
The term is going to end, and i am trying desperately to survive past friday before my cough/ flu erupts. Everytime i want to stay home and rest, i think of all the tutorials and lectures that i might miss and i decide against it:D
I have decided that i am going to study hard for blocks, but not too much. That is to say, i will not donate 100% of my effort to it. Maybe 60% Cos my logic is that if i put in all my effort now, then what do i have left for promos? But that said, i might regret it after i get my results back.
I'm starting my CIP this weekend! I'll be helping out in the A&E department at NUH, so it'll be quite an experience. I'm not sure that i am emotionally prepared enough, though. Still, if i want to be a doctor, this will be a good testing to see if i fit the job description.
I've got to attend a christian talk about what happens when the world ends, so toodles!

alycia :D:D:D:D:D

07s7e says lets mug at 4:32 pm

Tuesday, 22 May 2007


yay the blog is back up!!

anyway.. im really sorry, but i need to collect $7 from those who went for fac outing.. coz of the ties...

so far only woon chee, mark, zhi guang, esmond and jin xiang has paid me...

and i have 2 extra ties + 1 more for jin xiang who hasnt got his from me... but im not very sure who hasnt gotten theirs...

I know it can be quite sad when your results dont meet your expectations... but i guess whats done is done, no point worrying over the past, but we should channel our energies to the future. Sometimes... we just have to learn to channel the despair over results into a form of motivation... If you think you did badly this time, work harder next time! The good thing about not having a final examination is that you always get a second chance, and i guess we have no choice but to play the game of becoming educated. And now its still JC, and we have a year and a half left, where mistakes can still be covered up easily, at least before we enter uni (imagine if u punched a bus driver when u are working). Now is the chance to make mistakes, so that we can learn from them and prevent them from happening in the future. Don't be afraid of making wrong decisions now... at least is better to be wrong now than to be sorry later.

Personally I don't like the way academic results make everyone competitive. Academic results do not reflect your ability, but reflect how much you forget instead. True ability transcends academic results, and that is what the IP programme tries to teach us, but unfortunately it seems to be failing. How many people treated their student initiated activities seriously? Do we merely do copy and paste, or reflections with no meaning, or do we really take the opportunity to learn something outside our syllabus? Even now, do we bother to read up beyond the syllabus? The meritocratic system is intended to allow "perfect competition" spur people on to greater heights, but apparently, the thing called the "syllabus" is restricting what we learn.

Theres this thing that has been bugging me for a long time. Ideally speaking, there are many things we should and should not do, but practically speaking they are otherwise. How do we draw the line between being helpful and being taken advantage of? Or.. between helping and spoonfeeding? Or.. between hardwork and mugging? How do we differentiate between being unable to do something and unwilling to do something? What do we mean by "balanced"? I believe it all lies in the person, by setting your own definitions and standards. But, the problem only arises in the big picture, where actions get mistaken.

Last but not least... a question that has troubled many people. Basically, what are we living for? What are our directions in life? What is the purpose of life?

The academics give us callous replies to the meaning of life, and they are barely, or definitely not, answers to our purposes:

Biology: The central dogma. DNA encodes RNA, RNA codes for proteins, and the proteins determine the phenotype and characteristics of an organism. The mind, and all thinking processes are due to complex interactions between the neurotransmitters and proteins present in the neurons of our brains.

Chemistry: Life appears to be thermodynamically unfavourable, as the arrangement of molecules in a living system are highly ordered and non-spontaneous.

Physics: Life arises from probability. The uncertainty principle allows for random arrangement of molecules to form organic matter in the first place.

Mathematics: Not relevant.

Economics: Life is all about profit maximising (or about complex marketing strategies that we have not learnt)

Geography: Without cash, Malthus tells you, "take no brides". Malthus also says that people reproduce too fast (ie have too much fun).

History: World War I - 40 million died. World War II - 56 million died. Please do not repeat your mistakes (at least the world leaders should not). *Malthus must be happy

Perhaps with the exception of Literature. Morale of the story: enjoy the humanities. Studying too much deprives life of its essence.

Junjie says lets mug at 11:55 pm

Meritocratic systems are democratic and efficient, but they are huge engines of anxiety. The more purely meritocratic the system, the more open, the more efficient, the fairer, BUT, the more anxiety it produces, because there is no haven from competition. Your mother cannot go over and help you out - that would be cheating! You are on your own. Everything you do in a meritocratic society is some kind of test and there is never a final examination. There is only another test. People seem to pick up on this earlier and earlier in their lives and at some point it starts to get in the way of their becoming educated. You cannot learn when you are afraid of being wrong.

May 21, The New Yorker

kaixian X) says lets mug at 10:16 pm

Hi Guys,

Terms ending really really soon. can't you just feel the holiday inertia building up?? We've all worked super hard this term and its time for a well deserved break! Maybe not exactly a full four weeks of break, cos there's always things like SRP 2 wk attachment, CCAs, overseas trips, and blocks somewhere at the back of our mind :) I guess all four weeks won't all be filled with work and we'll still have time to slack off, and I appreciate that! haha

Photos from CSM and from Zhi Guang and Wee Lic's birthday. late... again.

Pre u sem pple pls post when you get back so we know how it went!

happy holidays!

07s7e says lets mug at 9:22 pm

Monday, 21 May 2007

the class t shirt design is finally out. please indicate in the tag board which one of the following looks the best. you can give your comments too.

1. version 1 (black)

2. version 1 (white)

3. version 2 (black)

4. version 2 (white)


07s7e says lets mug at 10:58 pm

my turn to emo on the class blog.
my bio grades on isp are DISMAL. 68% percentile compared to 92% percentile for the first test. i am so disappointed with myself. what a horrible way to end a term man. it doesnt help that chaotong reminded me how dismal my grades are. totally sucks man. i am so gonna die for blocks too, given the fact that i havent done maths tutorial for a term already. had fac comm interview today. kinda got killed i guess. i will treat you guys to tubs of island creamery ice cream if i get in man. i applied for sports rep only to realise that they traditionally prefer trackers and most of the time only take in trackers for this position. i hate term 2. its been a horrible term. congrats to zhiguang for getting moe pre-u scholarship. and congrats to myself for waiting and hoping that the school admin would call me too =(
i better do something about blocks soon or i am really gonna die. wish me luck in escaping this imminent death. sian =(
happy birthday junjie btw. sorry if i dont look happy at all =(

Sometimes when almost everything is wrong, one thing is so right you would do it all over again.

kaixian X) says lets mug at 9:28 pm

The blog really die liao arh..

Anyway... thanks to everyone for the bday wishes! My MSN suddenly kena spam that night.. haha

Thanks to HCI TKD! =)

Its amazing how time really flies... I received an email from a fren, only to realise that we had known each other for 8 and a half years... haha

After much thoughts...
my personal bday wish: I shall try not to be cold and reserved anymore
my wishes for the class: Stay together as one!! Study hard ya??

Junjie says lets mug at 6:02 pm

Saturday, 19 May 2007

hmmm... stagnant class blog. hey junjie, the visual profile thingy is really cool. esp the personality analysis, whoa... when i read it, i just think: yep, thats me man.

now that theres no more tests, e days get kinda long. doing ur profiling somehow takes your mind off the hot afternoon heat.


07s7e says lets mug at 1:46 pm

Wednesday, 16 May 2007

Oii... since when did the class blog become my blog???

Everyone is busy. Econs lecture quiz tmr. PW to do. Research programmes of various sorts. Block tests. CCAs and competitions. Tests and tutorials.

One thing that I've learnt these days... is not to rely only on your own strength. A person's physical and mental strength is limited, and only by working with others, be it friends, family, or anyone else, can one fully utilise his or her potential.

In economics terms...

Scarcity (Stress) arises when the unlimited human wants cannot be satisfied by the limited abilities of the human mind and body. As such, a choice (priorities) has to be made, and opportunity costs have to be incurred (not being able to take up everything one likes). However, by trade (teamwork) one can overcome the problem by the speacialisation of resources (focus on your strengths).

Working alone is like a monopoly. A monopoly is a price setter (you set your own targets).
The marginal revenue (amount of extra work needed to do better) is always less than the average revenue (results). Hence, by the marginal approach, the firm (individual) should produce at MC = MR, where MC is rising. Now that the output (effort) has been determined, the monopolist will let the market demand set the price (get your results). Although a monopoly is prodictively efficient, it is always allocatively inefficient. This creates a deadweight loss (the empty feeling).

On the other hand, if everyone were to work together, the situation would tend towards perfect competition. By being a price taker (everyone sets the same target), the resultant is both productively and allocatively efficient. By shifting from a monopoly to a perfect competition, consumer surplus (everyone's satisfaction) is greatly increased, although producer surplus (personal satisfaction) may or may not increase. There is also no longer a deadweight loss.

Furthermore, by working together, the market (class) as a whole can experience substantial economies of scale (common benefits). This is due to the class being a large firm. This internal EoS usually takes the form of technical EoS (greater scope for specialisation).

Sounds crappy, and this should NOT be used as a studying material.

But basically... its quite saddening to see the disparity in many things, not just results. There are people who just can't do well or get what they want despite the amount of effort they put in, and there are people who just have to devote every bit of their time and stressing themselves out. And there are also people who are still free and easy (how lucky..).

Either way, do study hard, not just alone, but do to ask and clarify your doubts as well. And do take care of ur health.


Junjie says lets mug at 7:37 pm

Tuesday, 15 May 2007


Enjoy =)

This is mine...

Junjie says lets mug at 9:08 pm

Monday, 14 May 2007


After dunno how many weeks of training..... And my 1st time competing for a sports CCA....

Got 4th for white belt team, and 1st for white belt pairs!!!!!

Overall... our school was not bad... we managed to maintain our 2 golds (white and yellow belt pairs), and quite a number of runners ups (white belt team male, yellow belt pairs, yellow belt team female, and got some more i cant remember..)..but basically, almost everyone got into the finals, so overall we still got many awards... however..TJC was like... somewhere around 10 golds...... =(

I suddenly realised after this while of hectic training... i'm quite far back in my studies... thts why some times i cant answer ur questions... sorry for that... and these few days i realised i was quite dao, mainly coz of tiredness but also working stress. Apparently i came to jc looking for stress and i think i've found it. Anyway... competitions over!!!! so now i have my time back.. haha... thanks to all those who supported us in one way or another...

I didnt realise it was week 9 until shuliang reminded me abt STP. 2 more weeks, and it will be holidays. I'm staying back for the whole hols, coz of centad.... so sad i cant go home.... and after that will be our blocks.

Somehow, I feel that it will be good if we can meet occasionally during the holidays to study together. I seriously think that there are a lot of things lacking in lectures, and sometimes we dont have enough time during tutorials.

Also... i'm really sorry for getting ties of the wrong colour, ugly design, and at a very costly price too... i know $7 can really hurt wallets.... esp if u add the $17 for the tickets... really sorry if i made a stupid decision.. perhaps we should just have done without it... and now i have 3-4 extra ties with me... coz didnt manage to give some people....

really sorry for the ties.... anyway... do remember to do ur GPP, and jiayou for blocks.


Junjie says lets mug at 8:49 pm

Sunday, 13 May 2007

Hi Guys,

I got these back from the photographers during the Science Research Congress. I know it was quite a while back!

O no.. its tilted and i have no idea how to change it. Just bend your head a bit when you look through.

More photos coming up.. those from CSM. I might consider uploading the ct photos too. but not until after you buy the hard copy from the photog soc .. muahaha


07s7e says lets mug at 11:03 pm

Saturday, 12 May 2007

Fac outing: Nice food. But somehow activities not as nice...

Please do show support for ur classmates, not just me. Thanks a lot for cheering for me.... but do remember to cheer the others as well. Zhi Guang and Alycia... good job!!

Tomorrow is mothers day. Do wish ur mothers, and for those whose mothers are overseas... do give them a call.

Do take care of ur health.... theres a flu spreading around...

Junjie says lets mug at 10:45 pm

Thursday, 10 May 2007

Time flies. This is the nth time I'm saying this...

Anyway... heres the block test timetable. Its IMMEDIATDELY after the holidays.

25 Jun (Mon) - Econs H2, 2h 10m (1300-1510)
26 Jun (Tue) - GP H1, 3h (0815-1145) / KI H2, 3h (0815-1145)
27 Jun (Wed) - CL H1, 3h (0815-1115) & Maths H2, 3h (1300-1600)
28 Jun (Thu) - Chem H2, 2h 40m (1300-1600)
29 Jun (Fri) - Bio H2, 2h (0815-1030) & CSC H2, 2h 15m (1300-1515)

Bio is on the last day. More time to study =), more time to worry =(

And its the shortest paper!! (thats bad..)

Start studying early. Learn slow and steady, so u can grasp the concepts fully. This also reduces the need for last minute mugging...

Study hard for blocks!! And pls take care of ur health!!

Kai Xian, Woon Chee, Chao Tong, Kelvin, and those I missed out.. sorry.. get well soon!! Fac outing on Sat... keep ur spirits up!! Stay healthy ok??


Junjie says lets mug at 9:00 pm

Wednesday, 9 May 2007

oh no.... everyone is starting to fall sick.....

do take care.... rest well, and dont overwork yourself.... make sure u get enough sleep, and dont stinge on food... and drink lots of water!!! and prioritise ur time... dont get overcommitted!!

if u really have problems with studies can find me... my breaks are free, so i'll rather do something productive than stone at class bench or some place....

i agree that life is starting to get more and more stressful... and the depth and rigour of our academic subjects have increased alot... and also CCAs and PW and SL projects and SRP or Centad etc.... everything is getting busier.

So basically.... everyone do take care, study hard, and try to make ur life enjoyable =)


Does not love - true love - suffer all things, believes all things, hope all things, endure all things? Love suffers long and is patient. It gives without stint, without measure and asks for nothing in return. It expects only good from the dear one through all trials and disillusionments.
- Helen Keller

I somehow feel that PW isnt as meaningless as before...

Junjie says lets mug at 10:35 pm

Tuesday, 8 May 2007


Of all the things to spoil in the boarding school... WHY MUST IT BE THE LIFT???!??!!??!

And when I stay at the top floor some more.

Lugging your schoolbag and after that a whole basket of laundry up and down isnt fun.

Anyway... congrats to HC Choir again for Gold with Honours!!!

Good luck for Bio SPA!!


Junjie says lets mug at 10:49 pm

Sunday, 6 May 2007

oh man. keeping this short and sweet. haha. team GUM-ers did not get into finals for VBC. that could be a blessing given how crazy the game is.

kaixian X) says lets mug at 12:08 pm

Saturday, 5 May 2007

yo..hihi..i have not been blogging for the past few months already, so long never use this blog liao..

hey, i have a very important announcement to make here, after 4 months of slacking, i finally have my own ccas, take note i did not write cca but ccas. Yes, that's right, i have 2 CCA, i am currently in Centad as well as photography society. What a big achievement for me.. haha, i am no longer CCAless, yay.

anyway, i have been very unhappy and upset about the stupid ASEAN night for the past few weeks. In case some of you don't know what is that, it is basically, according to those bunch of brainless, idiotic and moronic organizer (i think even Glenn is even smarter than them, haha), an event organized yearly for all the ASEAN scholar studying in Singapore to come together to have SOME FUN. Basically, it is like some sort of orientation for us to meet and make friends with other people (wow, what a noble aim).Personally, i can't see any benefit from this stupid events, so what if we go there and meet those new friends, its not like we can see each other frequently, whats the point of knowing those people that we may only met once in our lifetime, its not like we can always see each other and stay contact with them lar, we will soon forget each other, so whats the point of wasting our time and most importantly money ($8.50) to go and do this stupid activity. What makes me more angry is that this event fall on the same day as our faculty outing, luckily for me as i can use fac outing as an excuse not to go for the ASEAN night, but guess what, they are asking those who cant go to pay money, not $1, not $2, but $6.50, thats is so ridiculous, and those we cant go will not get any single things, not even food or some sort of orientation shirt, my precious $6.50 will just go to waste. Do you know the power of $6.50, it can allow me to eat lunch in school for 3 days, it is enough for me to wash cloths in boarding school (including drying) for 3 times, it is enough for me to buy 13 cups of drinks, and it is enough for me to do something more meaningful. i m not saying that those we cant go for the ASEAN night should not pay a single cent, $1 or $2 is reasonable, but $6.50 is imply ridiculous, its so unfair to those that cant go for the outing. this entire stupid things is making me very angry and bu shuang, but as all of u know, i am a very nice person, so i will still pay my $6.50, i will treat this as a donation to a BEGGER, i am HELPING those who are LESS FORTUNATE, at least this will make me not so angry.

okay, enough of complaining, i am going to do my work already. not mugging though. sianz, we still have a lot of tests for the next few weeks. GP test, Chem and bio Spa, econs quiz...haiz cannot relax yet

ok bah thats all..good luck everyone

Binsheng -.-"

07s7e says lets mug at 10:21 am

Friday, 4 May 2007

Haiz. I have no hope in today's paper....

Anyway, setting that aside, I FINALLY PASSED NAPFA!!!!! WHEEEEE

Having a sports CCA really helps... haha

And.... CenTaD results are out!! Check EMB!!! Congrats to the following ppl!!

Ling Jun Jie
Judith Cheng
CenTaD-NUS Medicine

Mai Qun Yuan
Wang HM

Wang Ruibin
Kelvin Tan
CenTaD-NUS (Synthesis)

Wong Bin Sheng
Kelvin Tan / Colin Loy
CenTaD-NTU (Organic Synthesis)

Wu Di
Liew Pei Chin/ Colin Loy

Yeo Woon Chee
Judith Cheng
CenTaD-NUS Medicine

And also to Mark and Wee Lic.... but their names are not on EMB..
(Edit: yea, now they are ^^)

Anyway... the STP enrichment schedule is out on the EMB as well... plz check it for details....

Work hard for PW!!! Haha.. so 扫兴, bio test over then have to do GPP....


Junjie says lets mug at 9:06 pm

Thursday, 3 May 2007

Hi all....

Not sure if everyone received their photosynthesis tutorials... they were at the class bench today...

And since they didnt go through the tutorial... I'll try to post the answers here. Please edit if they are wrong (and highlight!!)

1. A
2. D - Thylakoid membrane
3. B
4. D
5. B - Temperature is optimum, CO2 in low conc.
6. C
7. D - Stroma
8. C - NADPH and ATP used in reaction, RuBP is recycled, GP(PGA) is produced.
9. B
10. D* (not too sure). O2 produced by photolysis, so supplying 18O2 shouldnt have any effect on the photolysis of H2O.
11. C
12. C
13. A - Carbon fixation
14. B - Compensation point
15. D
16. B
17. B - DCMU is an electron acceptor, hence it prevents the ETC from functioning.
18. A
19. C
20. C - DCPIP is also an electron acceptor
21. B
22. D - Relatively high rate of photosynthesis at low light intensity, low maximum rate of photosynthesis.
23. C
24. A - Chlorophyll A donates the excited electron from water.
25. C
26. D
27. B - reduced NADP is NADPH. Don't get confused.
28. C

Structured qns.

1(a). Location of photophosphorylation: ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts.

Cyclic photophosphorylation:
- Only ATP produced, no NADPH produced
- Only PS I is involved
- Photolysis of water does not take place / Water is not required
- Oxygen is not produced
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation:
- Both ATP and NADPH is produced
- Both PS I and PS II involved
- Photolysis of water takes place
- Oxygen is produced as a by product

2(a) Location of Calvin cycle: Stroma of chloroplasts

2(b) Carbon fixation: RuBP + CO2 -> GP(PGA)
ATP converted to ADP: GP -> TP (PGAL) and also at the regeneration of RuBP
Reduced NADP oxidised: GP -> TP(PGAL), after ATP -> ADP
Glucose is synthesised: TP(PGAL) -> Synthesis of glucose

2(c) Role of water in light dep. stage:
- Split into protons, electrons, and oxygen by PS I
- Protons used to increase proton gradient between thylakoid lumen and stroma for the synthesis of ATP /phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
- Electrons used as energy carriers when excited ( in Photosystem II when an electron is emitted at high energies from P680, electron from photolysis fills up the electron gap, allowing cycle to continue.)

3(a)(i) NaH14CO3 - to supply 14CO2 by decomposition, 14CO2 used as radioactive marker to trace path of CO2 through the photosynthetic processes

3(a)(ii) Hot alcohol - organic solvent, dissolves membranes and chlorophyll / contents of chloroplast, extracting metabolites for chromatography. Kills cell and immobilises molecules to prevent further reaction

3(a)(iii) Photographic plate: To detect presence of 14C isotopes in the chromatograms

3(b) Light independant stage (CO2 is only involved in light indep. stage)

3(c) Glycerate-3-phosphate / 3-Phosphoglycerate / refer to notes XD

4(a)(i) Limiting factor: Light intensity

4(a)(ii) Light is saturated and is no longer a limiting factor. Other factors such as CO2 concentration and temperature becomes the limiting factor.

4(a)(iii) Light is usually present in excess in nature, hence rate of photosynthesis is limited by other factors such as concentration of CO2 and temperature, hence any change in CO2 concentration or temperature will directly affect the rate of photosynthesis. Any small variation in light intensity can thus be said to have no effect on the rate of photosynthesis.

4(b) Photosynthesis is largely enzyme controlled, hence rate of photosynthesis is proportional to rate of enzyme action. At low light intensities the light intensity is limiting, hence rate of photosynthesis is affected primarily by light intensity and not temperature. At high light intensities, light is no longer limiting, hence for the same CO2 concentration the temperature is limiting. A temperature of 25C is closer to the optimum temperature of the enzymes involved in photosynthesis than 15C. The substrate particles have more kinetic energy, leading to an increase in enzymatic activity.

4(c) Carbon dioxide is a limiting factor of photosynthesis in nature. From Fig 1, Graph A shows that the rate of photostynthesis can be increased up to 12 au in 0.4% CO2, whereas for graph C the maximum rate of photosynthesis is only at 2 au. This shows that the rate of photosynthesis can be increased up till CO2 concentrations of 0.4%, which is much higher than the atmospheric concentration of 0.035%.

4(d) - Amount of water - water is required for photolysis, generating protons and electrons for the synthesis of ATP and NADPH required by the light independent stages.
- Concentration of oxygen - oxygen is a competitive inhibitor of RuBisCO, an enzyme crucial for carbon fixation in the light independant stage / Calvin cycle. Oxygen competes with CO2 for the active site of RuBisCO, reducing the rate of photosynthesis.
- Presence of poisons/enzyme inhibitors - Poisons may affect the ETC by serving as electron acceptors, inhibiting the production of NADPH.
- Deficiency of essential ions required for chlorophyll - Unable to harvest light, reducing rate of photolysis, hence reducing rate of photosynthesis.
- Presence of pollutants - may damage leaves, ie blocking stomata or reducing transparency of epidermis, hence reducing rate of photosynthesis.

4(e) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH)


Essay Qn: All in one (lazy to write individually)

- Light harvested in thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
- Photosynthetic pigments in the photosytems such as chlorophyll b and carotenoids harvest and focus the light energy on to a pair of special chlorophyll a molecules (P680) in the reaction center of photosystem II via resonance energy transfer.
- Photolysis of water to form 2 protons, 2 electrons and oxygen by light per molecule of H20
- Oxygen released as a by product
- Hydrogen accumulates in thylakoid lumen, increases proton gradient btwn thylakoid lumen and stroma
- Electrons produced are used to replenish the electron lost by excitation from special chloroplast a
- PS II excites electrons to be received by an electron acceptor
- Transported through electron transport chain via plastoquinone, cytochrome b6f complex, plastocyanin. Energy is lost in the process.
- Reduction and oxidation of plastoquinone pumps protons into thylakoid lumen against concentration gradient, expands energy in the process, further increasing the proton gradient between the thylakoid lumen and the stroma.
- Electrons excited again in PS I by P700 in the reaction center by light energy transferred by accessory pigments
- Transferred to ferredoxin, then to NADP+ reductase
- NADP+ as final electron acceptor, forming NADPH
- Proton gradient created used to drive photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP via a catalyst, ATP synthase

- ATP and NADPH produced used to link and drive the Calvin cycle
- In the stroma, 3 molecules of Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) and 3 molecules of CO2, catalysed by RuBP carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to produce an unstable 6 carbon intermediate that spontaneously breaks down to form 6 molecules of Glycerate-3-phosphate (GP)
- GP is phosphorylated by ATP to form Glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate (BPG), producing ADP
- BPG is reduced by NADPH to form Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), producing NADP+ and an inorganic phosphate group
- ADP, NADP+ and the inorganic phosphate group are recycled in the light dependant stage
- 1 molecule of G3Pexits the cycle and is used to store chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose, or for the synthesis of lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
- The remaining 5 molecules of G3P are used to regenerate the 3 molecules of RuBP for the cycle.


Please add on if I lack anything!!! And.. thanks to Chao Tong for correcting my mistakes =)

Jiayou for bio test!!


07s7e says lets mug at 7:23 pm

Wednesday, 2 May 2007

Hi everyone!!

Kelvin says we need a class "video" with many pictures for fac outing....

So if anyone has any intersting or fun pics of the class other than those posted on the class blog, please send them to me!! =) Thx alot!!
*and... unfortunately we dont have a single pic with 24 ppl.
And also... does anyone have any suggestions or ideas of the theme of the video? Or any nice background music to recommend?

Anyway, I hope everyone can turn up for the outing during the hols... there shouldn't be anything on then....

Anyway, jiayou for bio test!! Please clarify ur doubts if u have any!!


Junjie says lets mug at 8:57 pm

Tuesday, 1 May 2007

On a happier note, tomorrow is my b'day.Muhahah no need to be reminded of more la, ok i noe....
PPLE, get things on your stride and if things are not going your way, reminder: read blog and write. Dont just put on comment box, they are for visitors....

I forgot to mention anything i write under "Sane" + Theoretical Psychology = STP is obviously not sane. Should i put under "Sane" + Total Psycho = STP ?
But hey even though my previous post is very disorganised and full of logic holes and full of apparent contradiction and full of structural confusion, please do treat it as a good example of a STP-labelled work, aka "Sane" +theoretical psychology!!!

Alot of previous posts in e blog is also STP, good job guys!! That is, if writing them will make u feel better n not worse . wahahh

weelic says lets mug at 2:23 pm

I find my life to be very weird...lately....
How should i say? it's not productive? it doesn't really matter. no "life"? we just had a mini b'day celebration ( mini, tt's an overstatement... :( ) and I played pool afterwards. So what's wrong? actually, if i know, i won't be writing this post.

I wonder how many of u reading this will be having the same syndromes: just having nothing to do in the entire long weekend, but it's still passing by with the swiftness of light. You can't freeze time, and you feel unfulfilled about just letting time simply pass by. You have none of the energy you used to have, the energy to do something meaningful, to love life. You lose your quirkiness(quirkiness in a positive sense) and your hyperness and initiative to get things the way u'll like it, instead, u settle down and stone, u won't even be shaken up by a stream of advice.

You know it when you are stuck. In the bottom of a murky river. Stagnant.

I don't know about you. To me, Emoness=emotional-ness is such an abstract term (to others, it's a jargon.ahaha,..but i derive no joy from typing out the onomatopoeia for laughter). Like beauty. Like Evil. It's different to different people. Everyone have different paradigms. (I hope the same education system would not make people homogenous, but only time will tell.Anyway as i observe people have slightly different paradigms about emoness.)

So what about this emoness?

It's my time to contribute what i have been suffering from these days. I will not say suffer. It's an overestimation. Coz...i'm not getting the degree of sadness as compared to e long-term stressed out individuals in our class; and if u have been keeping with the news, u may know who i think i know who is suffering from you-know-what. Ok, a lot of uncertainty here. Let me just keep it that way.

On to my feelings lately. It's a pretty long weekend. It's Labour day. and i'm turning 17 tomorrow. Not too bad, u know, coz i have just lived that 1 year longer, and i'm proud of it, to have simply "survived". I sort of think e survivor-of-the-fittest theory will be very cruel and all that, but it also teaches us to live every moment with a kind of knowing. Know that to simply treasure every second is a fortune. Know that we may not live the next second. Know that we may make an impact (preferably good one) on others and the world the next second.

There's a lot to do in a second.
I changed my mindset,my paradigm, at a certain second while typing this post.
And, geez, i dun have a recollection of when exactly i started to think differently.
In which of the numerous 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom at zero kelvins have i gotten thru with my thinking?

For all the people out there who are feeling stressed, feeling life su**, feeling that u want to change your msn nick from something positive like "DOING CIP with BLAHBLAHBLAH life rox" to something negative...
here's something to try. Just try blogging about your bad moods. (in my case, bad mood is an overstatement, really, just a bit of hormones...)
See whether you will suddenly just make a U-turn about things.


weelic says lets mug at 1:31 pm


What to do when u're sian and emo? Read book!!!

Just a sharing here... on "How to dunk a doughnut" by Len Fisher.

It covers on quite a lot of interesting stuff that can enhance what we learn, such as applying diffusion processes to dunking doughnuts and cooking meat, protein denaturation in boiling eggs, as well as behaviour of phospholipids in soap, etc. For the more interested readers, theres a chapter on the Physics of Sex, with stuff like the effect of viscuous drag(i dont understand that) on the flagellum of sperm cells, as well as the applications of Newton's Laws in er herm u know what, complete with calculations.

Reading books are a good way to destress!! Esp when u start to find that the stuff u are mugging is just pure memory work. Learn to apply them in practical ways (applications of Newton's Law will have to wait till later XD).

Everyone study hard and jiayou for chem and bio lecture test!!


Junjie says lets mug at 11:05 am



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